3D printing knowledge

In the following we will answer some questions about 3D printing in general. We would also be happy to include your questions in our catalog of questions if they have not yet been answered in this article.

When was 3D printing developed and how does it work?

In 1983, the American Charles W. Hull invented a process that is also known as stereolithography (abbr. SLA). In this process, a light-curable plastic, also known as epoxy or acrylic resin, is solidified with the help of a computer-controlled laser beam and built up in layers. A construction platform is gradually lowered into a resin tank, while the laser beam follows the contours of the programmed model and hardens the liquid resin on the surface of the liquid. After the 3D printing process is complete, the model is lifted out of the resin tank and separated from the build platform.

Which processes are now available in 3D printing?

3D printing has evolved into many different processes since its invention. In addition to the newly developed processes, the original stereolithography process also plays a significant role.

The currently most widespread method is the Fused Deposition Modeling method (short: FDM method) . In this process, a thread made of plastic is heated and liquefied in a nozzle. The liquid plastic is then applied in layers to a construction platform inside the 3D printer and cured until the final model has been completed. The printing process can be carried out both in an open construction space and in a construction space that is closed with respect to its surroundings.

Other established processes are selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM) . Both processes use a powdery consistency as the starting material, which is hardened in layers by a laser beam. The laser irradiates a powder bed, which is evenly distributed on the construction platform and fuses the powder particles together. The difference between the two methods lies in the powder material used. While plastics are used in selective laser sintering (SLS), metallic materials are used in selective laser melting.

Selective Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is similar to selective laser melting in that it is also a process that uses a powder bed for fabrication. An electron beam serves as the energy source, which hardens metallic powder material in layers until the object is completed. A squeegee smoothes the surface of the powder bed after each irradiation of a layer and the construction platform lowers evenly down to the final dimensions of the model.

The so-called Multi Jet Modeling (MJM) or Poly Jet Modeling (PJM) uses liquid acrylic polymers that are applied in layers to a construction platform using a print head, similar to conventional inkjet printers. Each layer is hardened by UV radiation and the construction platform is gradually lowered. The UV lamps are usually integrated directly on the print head and harden the liquid material immediately after it has been applied to the construction platform.

Continuous Liquid Interface Production , also known as the CLIP process , describes a 3D printing principle in which a photosensitive synthetic resin is cured by continuous UV radiation and is drawn from a liquid resin tank. The irradiation by UV light takes place below the resin tank, which has a fine membrane layer on its bottom that prevents the resin from depositing and solidifying prematurely. The construction platform is continuously lifted up out of the resin tank.

Digital Light Processing (DLP) technology is a projection method in which a beam of light projects an image onto the surface of a resin basin via digital micromirrors. A matrix of square micro-mirrors can selectively penetrate the light beam through the individual micro-mirrors or reflect them back. Thus, individual image representations can be reproduced, similar to a home cinema image projector. These image projections are now reflected onto a pool of liquid photopolymer resin and continuously lifted out of the pool. With this method, the projection can take place both from the underside of the resin tank - the model is lifted out of the resin tank, and from the top - the model steadily lowers further into the resin tank.

Laminated Object Manufacturing (LAM) describes a process that builds a model using film technology. The foils are placed in layers on a construction platform and the surface to be modeled is heated and solidified by a laminating device. The contours are cut off layer by layer with a cutter until the model has reached its final shape.

There are other innovative 3D printing processes and new processes are being developed regularly. We have based this list on the most common methods in order to present them in a way that is easy for you to understand. If you have any questions about other 3D printing processes, we are at your side with advice and action.

What is the best way to describe the 3D printing process?

3D printing has revolutionized the way we make objects, allowing us to create complex designs and objects that would have been impossible without this technology. Although 3D printing technology has been around for a while, it has only become more widely available to consumers and businesses in the last few years. A 3D printer's printing process is surprisingly simple, yet incredibly versatile, capable of producing a wide variety of objects.

At its core, 3D printing is a relatively simple process in which a computer controls a printhead that deposits layers of material on top of each other to create the desired object. The print head is typically moved in three dimensions (X, Y and Z) to create the object. This process is often referred to as additive manufacturing because it involves the addition of material to create the desired object.

Before the printing process can begin, the 3D printer needs a 3D design file. This design file is created using 3D modeling software and contains the information needed to properly construct the desired object. Once the design file is created and loaded onto the printer, the printer begins to build the object layer by layer.

The 3D printer first places a layer of the desired material, such as plastic or metal, on the printer bed. The printer then builds the next layer on top of the previous one, and so on, until the entire object is complete. During this process, the printer uses a heated nozzle to melt and deposit the material, or a laser can be used to cut and shape the material.

Once the object is finished, the 3D printer stops printing and the object is ready to use. The object can now be used for any purpose it was designed for, e.g. B. for prototyping, production or just for fun.

3D printing is an incredibly powerful and versatile technology that has revolutionized the way we create and manufacture objects. The printing process of a 3D printer is surprisingly simple and can be used to create a wide variety of objects. With this technology, the possibilities are almost endless and the only limit is your imagination.

What are the components of an FDM 3D printer?

3D printers are fast becoming a popular technology for creating physical objects from digital designs. They are incredibly versatile devices that can create anything from simple toys to highly complex components for industrial applications. But what exactly does it take to build a 3D printer that can do all of this?

The answer is a combination of electrical, mechanical and IT components. These components work together to create a 3D printer capable of producing intricate, high-quality designs. Let's take a closer look at each of these components.

Electrical Components: 3D printers require a number of different electrical components to function. This includes things like motors, controllers, power supplies, wiring, and circuit boards. All of these components work together to control the movement of the 3D printer's print head, as well as the temperature of the heated bed and the speed and direction of the print process.

Mechanical Components: The mechanical components of a 3D printer are responsible for the physical movement of the printer. These components include things like the frame, bed, extruder, and fans. The frame is the basic structure of the printer and is responsible for the stability and support of all other components. The bed is the surface that the 3D printer prints on and it needs to be flat and level to produce accurate prints. The extruder is the part that deposits the filament onto the bed and the fans are used to cool down the components during use.

IT Components: The IT components of a 3D printer are responsible for processing the digital designs used to create 3D prints. This includes things like the software, the processor, and the memory. The software is used to create the digital design that will be used to print the object, while the processor is responsible for interpreting the software's instructions and driving the 3D printer. The memory is used to store the digital designs and the instructions for the printer.

These are the three main components used to create a 3D printer. Each of these components plays an important role in the functioning of the printer, and they must all work together in order for the printer to produce accurate prints. It's important to understand how each of these components works to ensure your 3D printer produces the best possible prints.

What are the different designs for FDM printers?

3D printing is one of the most innovative technologies in recent times. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printers can be used to create plastic objects by depositing material layer by layer. These printers are available in different versions.

The first type is the Cartesian FDM printer . This printer follows a Cartesian coordinate system, where X, Y, and Z represent the axes of movement of the printer. This type is the most commonly used because it has the simplest construction and most FDM printers of this type are inexpensive and easy to assemble.

The second type is the Delta FDM printer . This printer has a delta robotic design where 3 arms are linearly driven to move the print material. This allows this printer to print faster than the Cartesian FDM printer. However, this type is more difficult to assemble and also requires more maintenance and care.

The third type is the Core XY FDM printer . This printer follows a Cartesian coordinate system but uses a different principle to move the printing platform. The Core XY FDM printer can print very quickly, but it is also more complicated to design and maintain.

What are the different advantages and disadvantages of the construction methods?

Each FDM printer type has its own advantages and disadvantages . It is important to choose a printer that best suits your specific needs. Choosing a printer that's right for you will make your 3D printing experience even more enjoyable and productive.

Cartesian 3D printers:

Although the Cartesian 3D printer offers some great features, they can also have some disadvantages. In this post, we will discuss the pros and cons of a Cartesian 3D printer.


A Cartesian 3D printer is a very cheap alternative to more expensive 3D printers. Because the linear motion system is easy to use and maintain, it's a good option for beginners who need a 3D printer.

Cartesian 3D printers are very precise and allow you to print complex objects in a short time. Because they offer high repeatability, you can rest assured that your prints will remain of the highest standard.

Cartesian 3D printers are also very flexible. There are different configurations that allow you to print different surfaces and also use multiple materials.


One of the biggest disadvantages of a Cartesian 3D printer is that it cannot print more complex objects because the linear motion system is not as flexible.

Another disadvantage is that Cartesian 3D printers are not compatible with all 3D printing materials. Because they only use a linear motion system, some materials cannot be printed with a Cartesian 3D printer.

Finally, Cartesian 3D printers are not as powerful as other 3D printers. They are not as fast and cannot print as many objects at once as other 3D printers.

Overall, a Cartesian 3D printer offers some great advantages, but there are also some disadvantages to consider before making a purchase. When choosing a Cartesian 3D printer, you should make sure that it can meet all your needs.

Delta 3D printer:

One of the latest developments in the field of additive manufacturing is the Delta 3D printer. Delta 3D printers are specialized 3D printers that feature a unique design similar to a delta robot. They are faster and more precise than other 3D printers, but there are also some disadvantages to be aware of.


One of the biggest advantages of a Delta 3D printer is its precision and speed. These printers use three axes to produce extremely precise parts. This allows them to work faster because they can print more parts at once. The Delta 3D printer can also print more complex parts because it can move in multiple directions at the same time.

Another advantage of the Delta 3D printer is that it is very cheap. Since most Delta 3D printers are open source hardware, they can be manufactured at a very affordable price. In addition, they are also easy to use as most of the models have a simple user interface.


Unfortunately, delta 3D printing also has some disadvantages. One problem is that the software used for these printers is quite complex, meaning it's harder to learn and understand. Also, these printers aren't as powerful as some other 3D printers, which means they can only print limited size and shape parts.

Overall, the Delta 3D printer is a powerful and affordable tool for 3D printing. It has its pros and cons, but for those looking for a powerful and affordable 3D printing experience, the Delta 3D printer can be the right choice.

Core XY 3D Printer:

One of the most popular 3D printers is the Core XY 3D printer. In this post we will examine the pros and cons of this printer to help you decide if this is the right printer for you.


The main advantage of the Core XY 3D printer is its simple and extremely efficient mechanics. The printer has two independent X and Y axis systems that are designed to slightly overlap when operating on a central plane. This allows the printer to reach the desired position of the extruder faster than other 3D printers. This results in faster print speeds and less material wastage.

Another advantage of Core XY is that print speed improves not only due to the increased speed of the extruder, but also due to the improved accuracy of the printer. Because the printer has two independent motors working on a central plane, it can produce much more precise prints.

Another key advantage of the Core XY 3D printer is its reliability. Because the printer has two motors, both motors must work together to start printing. Therefore, it is very unlikely that one of the motors will fail or any other type of failure will occur. Therefore, the Core XY 3D printer is very reliable in terms of reliability.


The only downside of the Core XY 3D printer is its price. The printer is slightly more expensive compared to other 3D printers. While there are some inexpensive models, they are not as powerful as the more expensive models. Therefore, you must consider whether the Core XY 3D printer is right for you.

Overall, the Core XY 3D printer is an excellent printer that offers fast and accurate print quality. Its simple mechanics and reliability make it a good choice for anyone looking for a powerful and reliable 3D printer. The printer's only downside is its price, but if you're willing to spend a little more for a powerful printer, the Core XY 3D printer is an excellent choice.

We hope that with this entry in 3D printing knowledge we have been able to support you a bit in choosing the right 3D printer system. However, if you continue to have doubts and are undecided whether the printer will meet your requirements, we are at your side with advice and action.

What are 3D printing nozzles?

The 3D printing nozzle is an important part of the 3D printer setup. It is the part that dispenses the molten, liquid material (filament) used to create 3D printed objects. 3D printing nozzles come in a variety of sizes and materials, allowing for a variety of details and textures to be printed. However, it is important to choose the right nozzle for your project, as the wrong nozzle can cause problems such as clogging or poor surface finish.

At first glance, 3D printing nozzles may seem like a relatively simple component. However, they are quite complex and can have a significant impact on the quality of your printouts. The size of the nozzle determines the width of the filament laid down, while the material of the nozzle determines how fast the filament can be laid down (and how much heat it can withstand). The shape of the nozzle also affects the spread of the filament, which in turn affects the quality of the end product.

What does "bed leveling" and in particular "autobed ​​leveling" mean?

We will give you a brief explanation of what these two terms are all about.

Bed leveling

Bed leveling is an important prerequisite for successful and precise 3D printing.

This is the manual alignment of the print bed to the 3D printing nozzle in relation to their distance from each other. The distance should remain constant over the entire 3D printing platform to avoid warping of the 3D printed part.

Basically, if the selected distance between the 3D printing nozzle and the printing bed is too large, there is insufficient adhesion of the 3D printing model to the building board.

This can lead to the component detaching from the build plate during the printing process and printing having to be stopped.

In the classic method of leveling a print bed, a piece of paper is placed between the nozzle and the print bed. The adjusting screws for raising/lowering the building plate are then turned until the paper can be pulled with a little resistance. The adjustment is made at different positions on the entire print bed. The difficulty of the method lies in estimating how the resistance should actually be.

Autobed ​​leveling

3D printers with a so-called auto-leveling function can help. As the name suggests, the 3D printer levels itself by aligning the printing plate so that prints are not printed at an angle. Especially with larger projects, this affects the print bed adhesion and in the worst case the print head can damage the base plate.

Distance sensors are used in the 3D printers, which determine the distance to the base plate and thus any unevenness. These are then remedied by specifically raising and lowering the base plate. Depending on the model, there is also an in-between thing between manual and auto-leveling. Although the distance is measured in such models, the leveling as such is done manually.

What are the advantages of a heated printing plate?

A heated platen has many advantages that make it a valuable tool.

The key points are listed below:

  1. A hea t ed b u ding b ard en ables th e print b ed to be set t o t a cer tain tempe rature , which improves the qual it y of the print obj ect _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ verb eaten .
  2. Impro ve d adhe sion betw een the prin ting object and the building board , which leads to impro ve d prin ting qual it y . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  3. Reduces the formation of cracks and warp that can occur due to uneven heating of the printed object . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  5. Permits printing of materials that require a higher temperature to melt , such as . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ B. _ ABS .

What is a 3D printing extruder?

The 3D printing extruder is an essential element of a 3D printer. The 3D printing filament is heated in the extruder and transported by a material conveyor to the 3D printing nozzle. After melting in the hotend, the filament is pressed through the nozzle and applied to the building board.

The extruder consists of the following components:

  1. heater
  2. engine
  3. nozzle system

The heater rod heats the material to the required temperature, the motor drives the heater rod and the nozzle system controls the pressure at which the material is extruded.

When do you need support structures? And how are they printed?

Support structures are needed to give the 3D printed models the desired shape and support. They allow to increase printing speed and improve print quality. The supports are usually printed from the same material as the object, but they can also be made from a different material, such as washable and breakaway supports . The printing process for support structures is usually an FDM or FFF printing process, where a filament is layered on a print bed.